|fig 1 Hyglac`s raid|
528 The Frankish historian Bishop Gregor of Tours wrote about the Geatic(Goth or Jute) king Chochilacus (Hyglac) was defeated during a sea raid against the Frankish coast. The raid was mentioned in the Anglo Saxon 8th century Beowulf poem : "Our feud with the franks grew worse when Hugleik sailed with his fleet to the shores of Frisia. Frankish warriors attacked him there, and outfought him, he fell, surrounded by his retainers".
512 The Greek Procopios a secretary at the Byzantine general Belisarius told that emperor Anastasius Dicorus gave permission to Heruli to settle in Illyria, because The Longobards had driven them out from the area between Donau and Dniester. Here they killed their king Onchon and sent some of their people back to Thule to recruit a new king among their fellow tribesmen. They had free passage through the land of the Danes, before they arrived to the ocean.
550 The Roman-Gothic author Jordanes, wrote a history book, where he mentioned the Danes, who came from Skandia(Scania) and were taller and bigger than all other Nordic tribes.
Jordanes also mentions that they arerelated to the Svear tribe and the Danes had driven out the Heruli from their homeland. The Heruli mentioned in 267 where they were acting as pirates in The black sea, They were in 460 in Aquitania and Galicia. A Roman poet Sidonius Apolinaris wrote that the Heruli came from an area near the most ice cold deep sea.
565 A Danish-Saxon viking army raided in Western Fries-land, but was defeated by Duke Lupus of Champagne. The incident is known from a poem written by Venantius Fortunatus.
|fig 2 Scandinavian warrior 6-7th century|
The group buried at Salme were warriors, large with the scars of past battles. They were led by a small group of nobles bearing decorated swords. The most elaborate sword was found next to a skeleton with an ivory game piece in its mouth.
They brought at least 2 Scandinavian ships, probably from an area in Sweden. One was old, built some time before 700, and heavily patched. It lacked sails but could be rowed between islands. The 7 bodies in the ship had few goods or decorations buried with them.
The second ship more technologically advanced, large enough to hold 33 bodies.
It probably had sails.
It’s likely that the Salme raiders came to Estonia on a raid or to collect tribute. Perhaps they were ambushed by rival Vikings; perhaps the Estonians fought back.
Some of the raiders of the viking group survived. The boat burials were done quickly.
730 The Bishop of Utrecht Willibrord traveled on a Christian mission to Denmark. This was an attempt to preach in Denmark, but it failed Willibrord wrote that the Danish king Ongendus(Angantyr) was tougher than stone and wilder than an animal. though ,the preacher was treated well during his visit.
735 The Anglo Saxon historian Beda wrote that one of the tribes was named the Jutes, the Angles came from an area called Angel in Southern Jutland, Angel was desolate and empty for people after the migration.
|fig 3 Danewall(Dannevirke)|
|fig 4 A Viking Shield maiden|
753 Staraja Lodaga aka Aldeigjuborg was established by Vikings from Sweden to control trade along the Russian rivers. Staraja Ladoga, was named in Old Norse Aldeigjuborg, it is one of Russia’s oldest towns .The settlement was built along the River Volkhov, and a fortress was built.
770 A trade and manufacturing was established at Aarhus the place was called Aros meaning mouth of the river.
771 Charlemagne attacked the heathen Saxons and destroyed the holy tower Irminsul, Danes witness how their neighbourswere suffering from Christian atrocities and had to surrender to the Frankish empire.
777 The Saxon chieftain Widukind and his war band fled to Denmark, where the Danish king Sigfred gave him and other Saxon refugees political asylum.
778 Widukind returned to Saxony to join the rebellion against Charlemagne's army, Many Danish warrior traveled with Widukind to participate in the Saxon freedom war.
780 The town of Kaupang was founded. It stretched 500 m along the seashore of the Norwegian town Larvik. Archaeological excavations found :Arab silver coins,jewelry and Italian glass.
782 Charlemagne crushed the Saxon rebellion , he arrived to Lippe and entered negotiations with the diplomats appointed by the Danish king Sigfred. After the withdrawal of the Frankish army, Widukind started another Saxon rebellion, and as a form of revenge Charlemagne ordered the execution of 4500 unarmed Saxon hostages in the town Verden an der Aller. This atrocity caused whole Saxony into flame and fury.
|fig 5 Saxon attacks Franks|
783 During two large battles Charlemagne crushed the Saxon Rebellion, after the victory Charlemagne ordered forced Christianize to all Saxons. Any association with Paganism would result in death penalty. Saxons would rebel again and Saxons kept fleeing to Denmark.
788 A Danish chieftain Olgerus(Holger Danske) was attending the court of Charlemagne, on the basis of legends about Olgerus the French poet Raimbert De Paris wrote in the 12th century the book Chevalerie Ogier, which told us about the battles against the longobards and the Saracens, when Holger Danske was part of Charlemagne's army. Holger Danske later became a Danish national hero and in 1534 Christian Pedersen used the French poem to write the book Chronicle of Holger Danske.
789 3 ships from Hordaland, Norway raided Isle of Portland on the Dorset coast, and killed a local reeve. The Anglo Saxon Alcuin, Advisor to Charlemagne wrote to a friend in Saxony "Is there any hope for a Christianize of the Danes ?", the Franks knew that the reign over Saxony was unstable until the warrior Danes had become Christian.